Heraclius, aged 36, was proclaimed the new empero… ]: "the emperor brought elders from Rome and baptized them and taught them fairly to perform the works of piety and expounded to them the faith of the Christians.".  He later had the genitalia removed from the body because Phocas had raped the wife of Photius, a powerful politician in the city. The Turkic Avars, who ruled over the Slavic and other tribes that occupied the region between the Don and the Alps, exacted tribute. Muhammad) ordered you, you replied that he ordered you to establish the prayer, to speak the truth, to be chaste, to keep promises and to pay back trusts." The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus but Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, and Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat.  The first conflict between the Byzantines and Muslims was the Battle of Mu'tah in September 629. 32 [Of the Serbs and of the country they now dwell in.  Continuing south along the Tigris he sacked Khosrow's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal.  The 14th-century scholar Ibn Kathir (d. 1373) went even further, stating that "Heraclius was one of the wisest men and among the most resolute, shrewd, deep and opinionated of kings.  He also created the office of sakellarios, a comptroller of the treasury. In 622, clad as a penitent and bearing a sacred image of the Virgin, he left Constantinople, as prayers rose from its many sanctuaries for victory over the Persian Zoroastrians, the recovery of the Cross, and the reconquest of Jerusalem. They sought to capture him, and he rode madly back to Constantinople, hotly pursued. Ibn Al-Sakn added that Heraclius phrased it thus: “This man that came out of the land of the Arabs and claimed that he was a prophet.” “ So Abû Sufyân said: I said: ‘I … He failed. The Byzantines were defeated in a great battle on the Yarmuk (636). His reforms of the government reduced the corruption which had taken hold in Phocas's reign, and he reorganized the military with great success. Moreover, even though he fostered the crusading spirit, he waged war in a less inhumane manner than most of his contemporaries. Owing to his role as the Roman Emperor at the time Islam emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature , such as the Islamic hadith and sira . [A 2] Thereafter, Khosrow seized the opportunity to attack the Byzantine Empire and reconquer Mesopotamia. Although the territorial gains produced by his defeat of the Persians were lost to the advance of the Muslims, Heraclius still ranks among the great Roman Emperors. This act caused great consternation among the Muslims, who considered it as an outrage of international obligations. In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius is the only Roman Emperor who is discussed at any length.  In 626 the Avars and Slavs supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, besieged Constantinople, but the siege ended in failure (the victory was attributed to the icons of the Virgin which were led in procession by Sergius about the walls of the city), while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius's brother Theodore. The animosities thus created had facilitated the Persian conquest, and Heraclius sought to conciliate the dissenters with the doctrine of Christâs single will (monothelitism). He assembled his forces in Asia Minor, probably in Bithynia, and, after he revived their broken morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war; an acheiropoietos image of Christ was carried as a military standard.. In 614 the Persians conquered Syria and Palestine, taking Jerusalem and what was believed to be Christâs Cross, and in 619 occupied Egypt and Libya. , After a tour of the Empire, Heraclius returned the cross to Jerusalem on March 21, 629 or 630. Mindful of the propagandistic value of Khosrowâs response, Heraclius made it public. , Heraclius's defeat of the Persians ended a war that had been going on intermittently for almost 400 years and led to instability in the Persian Empire. Heraclius immediately took charge of the ByzantineâSasanian War of 602â628. Owing to his role as the Roman Emperor at the time Islam emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature, such as the Islamic hadith and sira. With a keen sense of reality, he adjusted the empire to the needs of the 7th century, departmentalizing the great state offices and replacing Latin with Greek as the official language. After her death in 612, he married his niece Martina in 613; this second marriage was considered incestuous and was very unpopular. The fate of the empire hung in the balance. Only when Yazdgerd III, a grandson of Khosrow II, succeeded to the throne in 632 was there stability.  Owing to his role as the Eastern Roman Emperor at the time Islam emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature, such as the Islamic hadith and sira. This way peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires.  The peace allowed him to rebuild the Empire's army by slashing non-military expenditure, devaluing the currency, and melting down, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, Church treasures to raise the necessary funds to continue the war.  Outside of Islamic sources there is no evidence to suggest Heraclius ever heard of Islam. , The following year the Muslims launched an offensive into the Arabah south of Lake Tiberias, taking Al Karak. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Heraclius, Eastern Roman emperor (610–641) who reorganized and strengthened the imperial administration and the imperial armies but who, nevertheless, lost Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Byzantine Mesopotamia to the Arab Muslims. But the Romans sank the primitive Avar fleet that was to transport Persian units across the Bosporus and repelled the unsupported Avar assault. In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius is the only Roman Emperor who is discussed at any length. Heraclius was married twice: first to Fabia Eudokia, a daughter of Rogatus, and then to his niece Martina. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [A 4] Of Martina's children at least two were disabled, which was seen as punishment for the illegality of the marriage: Fabius (Flavius) had a paralyzed neck and Theodosios was a deaf-mute. Emerging from his tent, Heraclius saw the triumphant Persians crossing the bridge. Unruly mercenaries were largely replaced by native soldiers with a personal interest in protecting the empire. When he reached the capital, the Excubitors, an elite Imperial Guard unit led by Phocas's son-in-law Priscus, deserted to Heraclius, and he entered the city without serious resistance. A month later, Heraclius entered Dastagird with its stupendous treasure. The reason Heraclius chose this title over previous Roman terms such as Augustus has been attributed by some scholars to his Armenian origins. The Governor equipped an expeditionary force and put his devout son, the blond and gray-eyed Heraclius, in command of it. In 613, the Persian army took Damascus with the help of the Jews, seized Jerusalem in 614, damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the True Cross, and afterwards capturing Egypt in 617 or 618.  Phocas, an unpopular ruler who is invariably described in historical sources as a "tyrant" (in its original meaning of the word, i.e. He commanded a Christian. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. Many of his men rushed impetuously across the bridge and were ambushed and annihilated by the enemy. This is largely because, as Kaegi explains, his reputation has varied considerably, and quite understandably, during the ages for Heraclius is the Emperor who, on the one hand, crushed the Sassanid Empire (although the Arab invasions finished it off) and defeated the Avars and, on the other hand, lost for ever the East - and the Empire's richest provinces at the time - to the Arab onslaught. Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah's Apostle which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. Emperor Heraclius synonyms, Emperor Heraclius pronunciation, Emperor Heraclius translation, English dictionary definition of Emperor Heraclius. Indeed, in the ensuing hostilities, a pious poet contrasted the dancing girls in the Persian generalâs tent with the psalm singers in the Emperorâs. (Leuven, Paris: Peeters, 2002), Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Non-Muslim interactants with Muslims during Muhammad's era, Seleznyov N.N. "âso enraged Heraclius that he beheaded Phocas on the spot. So, as a goodwill gesture, he sent the True Cross with a negotiator in 628. Later on, starting in 629, he styled himself as Basileus, the Greek word for "sovereign", and that title was used by the Byzantine Emperors for the next 800 years. Both of these show scenes of Heraclius and Constantine I's mother Saint Helena, traditionally responsible for the excavation of the cross. Despite widespread hatred for Martina in Constantinople, Heraclius took her on campaigns with him and refused attempts by Patriarch Sergius to prevent and later dissolve the marriage..  Theodorus had the same treatment but was sent to Gaudomelete (possibly modern-day Gozo Island) with additional instructions to cut off one leg. 10.5617/acta.5832. The war initially went the Persians' way, partly because of Phocas's brutal repression and the succession crisis that ensued as the general Heraclius sent his nephew Nicetas to attack Egypt, enabling his son Heraclius the younger to claim the throne in 610. He had two children with Fabia (Eudoxia Epiphania and Emperor Constantine III) and at least nine with Martina, most of whom were sickly children. During his last years, Heraclius seems to have suffered from enlargement of the prostate gland, retention of urine, and a consequent inflammation. Fearing water, he remained a year on the Asiatic bank of the Bosporus before summoning the courage to cross to Constantinople on a pontoon bridge with foliage hiding the water. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrow was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavad II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. The Persian king Khosrow II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavad II, who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory. In 626 the Persians advanced to the Bosporus, hoping to join the Avars in an assault on the land walls of Constantinople. The word "heraclius" appear 59 time(s) in 11 hadith(s) in Sahih Al-Bukhari صحيح البخاري translation. 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